Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreement for closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or to use a helicopter. [Citation required] However, there is no customs union (or customs duties) between Italy and the Vatican, which is why all vehicles are checked at the borders of Vaticano. In 1990, the Convention was supplemented by the Schengen Convention, which proposed the total abolition of systematic checks at internal borders and a common visa policy. For international travel purposes, the Schengen area functions in the same way as a single state at the external borders for travellers entering and leaving the zone and common visas, but without internal border controls. It currently consists of 26 European countries, a population of more than 400 million people and an area of 4,312,099 square kilometers (1,664,911 square miles).  In response to the migrant crisis in Europe in 2015, several Schengen countries established border controls. Croatia has 990 kilometers (620 miles) of land border and 58 border controls with other EU countries (Slovenia and Hungary).
[Citation required] Belfast Telegraph (12 Feb. 18) – “The trade deal between Britain and the EU is the best way to avoid a hard Irish border – Varadkar.” (Added February 13, 18). (b) Peter Hain (30 Jan 18): Speech to the House of Lords on the European Withdrawal Act. “No one who truly understands the complexity and dangers of politics on the island of Ireland seriously believes that the opening of the border can be achieved without Northern Ireland remaining in the same internal market and customs union as the Republic of Ireland.” As can be seen, Lord Hain agrees with the ICTU`s view (see above) that “the best and most logical way to avoid a hard border is for the UK as a whole to remain both in the internal market and in the customs union”. (Added February 1018). So far, EU, EEA and Swiss nationals, as well as their family members enjoying the right to free movement, have only been subject to “minimal checks” when crossing the external borders. This means that their travel document has only been subject to a “quick” and “simple” visual check and an optional database check for lost/stolen travel documents. Consultation of the Schengen Information System and other national databases to ensure that the traveller does not pose a threat to security, public policy or public health was strictly “not systematic” only if such a threat was “real”, “present” and “sufficiently serious”.
 In contrast, other travellers were subject to “thorough screening.”  This does not necessarily mean that the police control the passport of everyone crossing the border. In Germany, for example, few border crossing points with Austria are subject to more intensive surveillance and controls at other borders. In 2017, the Swedish government stopped systematically screening anyone crossing the border with Denmark and instead switched to targeted checks and automated surveillance systems. . . .